Download Athens Transformed, 404–262 BC: From Popular Sovereignty to by Phillip Harding PDF

By Phillip Harding

During the heady, democratic days of the 5th and fourth centuries, the poorer contributors of Athenian society, the reduce periods of zeugitai and thetes, enjoyed an remarkable dominance in either household and international politics. At domestic, the participatory nature of the structure required their presence not just within the lawcourts and meeting, but additionally in many of the minor magistracies; overseas, they have been the motive force of the military, which ensured Athens’ keep an eye on of the Aegean and the Black seas. Their participation in any respect degrees used to be made attainable through kingdom pay (for jury responsibility, attendance within the meeting, public place of work and army service). within the 5th century kingdom pay was once financed mostly during the tribute paid by means of contributors of the empire, supplemented via the liturgical contributions of the wealthy and, starting through the struggle, a estate tax (the eisphora). within the fourth century, nearly the complete burden was once shouldered via taxation upon the rich, specially those that owned estate.



In this booklet, writer Phillip Harding lines the most important adjustments that happened within the management of the nation that finally disadvantaged the decrease sessions in their supremacy and transferred strength into the palms of the rich land-owners. issues replaced noticeably after Athens’ defeat within the Lamian (or Hellenic) struggle in 322BC. Over the following a number of many years, restrict of the franchise, removal of pay for a few public workplaces, the lack of the army, the elevated dependence upon neighborhood grain from the bigger estates in Attika, the removing of the tax burden from the wealthy through the finishing of such significant liturgies because the trierarchia and the choregia and the leaving behind of the eisphora all contributed to this change.

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